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September 19, 2007

Glass Bottle Trees add color to your garden.

Filed under: Garden Talk — Tags: , , , , , , , , — discoverer @ 11:42 pm

Glass Bottle Trees- Is it just a Mississippi thing?
We have received inquiries about the glass bottle trees, which will be available on our website soon. Thought we might share some history and reading material for those interested.

Slaves from the Congo in Africa brought the idea of the traditional bottle trees – live trees with colored bottles on the ends of branches – into this country. Bottle trees protected homes from evil spirits by trapping spirits inside the bottle, where they could do no harm.

Recently, the bottle tree has seen new life as a tree-like metal structure with a steady base and branches (where colored bottles are placed).

Today's Bottle tree

It was the perfect song for Muddy Waters and Willie Dixon knew it. The song was still fresh and Muddy learned it quickly from Dixon while taking a break between sets at Chicago’s club Zanzibar, where he was playing a regular gig. The year was 1953 and Muddy was at the height of his power, both artistically and commercially.

When he tried “Hoochie Coochie Man” on his band and the club patrons moments later, he knew he had a hit. The crowd went nuts. Muddy growled and swaggered, imbuing the song with sexual power and menace. Muddy gave voice to the defiant pride of his audience, a pride long held in check in the segregated South, now finding a new freedom in the urban North.

But it wasn’t just the sexual swagger and electrified sound that connected Muddy to his fellow exiles. Muddy was openly acknowledging the power and influence of Hoodoo in the lives of his fellow African Americans.

The laundry list of magical talismans and beliefs in “Hoochie Coochie Man” serve the song primarily as metaphor for virility and sexual power, but they also serve as a powerful connection of his audience to a shared African past, the evidence of which still exists today, hiding in plain sight.

The shared past of African American history begins along the African coast from Senegal and Gambia to the North, through Sierra Leone and down to Nigeria and the Congo. Most slaves brought to the Americas came from this narrow coastal region, a region culturally diverse in language, religious practice and musical traditions. To maintain control over the slave population, the Africans were stripped of most of their cultural identity and forced to take on the religion of the master, Christianity. For survival, most eventually succumbed to the oppression of the white masters, or so it appeared on the surface.

But the history of Africans in the New World is that of a people who knew how to adapt, innovate and maintain their spirit even under the most brutal of conditions. Noticing similar characteristics in the pantheon of Spirits from the Yoruban religions to those of the Catholic Saints, the apparent Christian conversion of many slaves was little more than a mask that allowed them to maintain an African cultural connection through the process of adaptation. Thus, the West African religions became Vodun in Haiti, Obeah in Jamaica, Santera in Cuba, Shango Baptist in Trinidad, Voodoo in the Deep South, and elsewhere, its lesser-known cousin “Hoodoo.”

Unlike Voodoo, which maintains a connection to the Orisha, or African Pantheon of Spirits, Hoodoo is not a defined belief system but rather a gumbo of African-American folk magic, Indian herbalism, root work, European folklore, traditional Christianity and personal rituals. Practitioners of the craft are known as root doctors, two-headed men (and women), hoodoo doctors and conjurers, among others. Though derided by mainstream Christianity as, at best, naive superstition and at worst, devil worship, many practitioners of Hoodoo consider it a practical, ritual-based form of folk Christianity, a white magic.

In many ways Hoodoo represents the flip side of Christianity, sharing similar goals and aspirations but doing it through practices that utilize the collective memory of African culture, therefore being exiled to the shadows of mainstream religion. Similarly, the blues is Gospel’s earthier, secular cousin, speaking similar truths but doing it in a voice unfiltered by Christian dogma. It’s hardly surprising then that a reviled and misunderstood form of African-based religion would find voice in a music similarly condemned by the church.

The history of the blues, both in recorded lyrics and in the personal beliefs of some of its greatest musicians, is rife with examples of Hoodoo. And despite the fact that most practitioners of Hoodoo make outward claims of it being an extension of Christianity, much of the Hoodoo referred to in blues lyrics is decidedly of the darker variety.

Perhaps the most pervasive and powerful myth in blues lore is that of Robert Johnson selling his soul to the devil at the crossroads in exchange for guitar prowess. Aside from the fact that it was singer Tommy Johnson and not Robert Johnson who actually made this claim, the crossroads myth is nevertheless a belief that cuts to the heart of Yoruban religion.

In Africa, the god of the crossroads is known variously as Legba, Eshu, and many others. Although Christianity regards any trickster god as being synonymous with Satan or his lesser demons, the beliefs of the Yoruba hold that it is only through this trickster God that you can gain access to the higher Gods. Thus, a crossroads is the best place to gain access to spiritual forces that will allow the believer to gain one of many different skills, be it gambling luck, dancing ability, various work skills or the ability to play music better than one’s rivals.

The good/evil duality of Christianity has no allowance for a more complex polytheistic system like those found in Africa, so Legba becomes Satan and a rather benign ritual is equated with eternal damnation. Robbed of the original context for what was a partially remembered ritual, many African Americans came to accept the equating of Legba with Satan, further exiling the bluesman, or anyone else beyond the Christian mainstream, from respectable society.

Many blues lyrics reference the spells or talismans of Hoodoo, such as “goofer dust,” or a “black cat bone,” but the most commonly used and misunderstood of all is the concept of “mojo.” Mojo has become a ubiquitous cultural buzzword, incorporated into the title of dozens of commercial products. Through cultural references by rock band the Doors (“Mr. Mojo Rising”) and the satirical British spy Austin Powers (“Blimey! I’ve lost my mojo!”), mojo is often understood to be nothing more than sexual virility or a euphemism for the male organ.

Derived from an African word meaning “spirit” or “life force,” mojo in the context of Hoodoo and the blues refers to one of various types of flannel bags containing secret magical ingredients obtained from a Hoodoo conjurer and designed to assist the believer in either love or money interests.

Evidence of Hoodoo and other African cultural retentions also can be found in African-American material culture, although the original meanings of the objects have often been forgotten. Most of these objects were traditionally used to keep “evil spirits” out of the home, but they also served a decorative function and it’s in that context that most still exist.

The most well-known is the horseshoe nailed above a threshold for “good luck.” This is but one of many objects African Americans used to keep evil from entering the home. Others examples included tacking a bible verse above the door, painting doors and windows blue (called “haint blue” in South Carolina), hanging “ghost mirrors” beside the door (evil is repelled by its own sight), flanking the door with vessels of water, and hanging a colander or sieve over a keyhole (evil spirits are obsessive compulsive and must count the holes before entering).

Yesterday's Bottle tree

© Eudora Welty Collection

Mississippi Department of Archives and History

This photograph by Welty, of a home in Simpson County, reflects a folk belief that “bottle-trees” trees on whose limbs bottles have been placed will trap evil spirits that might try to get in the house. Welty used bottle trees in her short story “Livvie,” which was set near the Old Natchez Trace, a famous colonial “road” used by Indians, merchants, soldiers, and outlaws between Natchez and Nashville, Tennessee. This photograph, like many others taken by Welty during her work for the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s, appears in One Time, One Place: Mississippi in the Depression: A Snapshot Album (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996).

The old methods of repelling evil that still commonly exist are mostly found in yard art or yard shows. Surrounding any living plant or tree with rocks, a discarded tire, or small wire fencing acts as an encircling charm of protection. Similarly, encircling herbs planted around the home serve as a botanical protection. “Swept” yards containing no grass were thought to prevent the devil (i.e., snakes) from having protective cover. But the most dramatic of all art objects designed to repel evil has all but disappeared from the Southern landscape: the bottle tree. In this belief, reaching back to the Congo of the 9th century, colorful bottles (traditionally cobalt blue) are placed on branch ends to catch the sunlight. When an evil spirit sees the play of light, it enters the bottle and, like a wasp, is thereby entrapped.

Remnants of African culture and religion are woven into the fabric of American culture in so many ways, they often remain hidden in plain sight. Hoodoo is alive and well, both in the rural South and in the urban North, evincing the resilience of these beliefs to survive in the face of continued prejudice and misunderstanding. Like the blues, Hoodoo and other belief systems of African derivation will never die but will continue to adapt for survival into the 21st century.

Glass bottle trees are no longer just a Mississippi thing – the popularity has grown into a national interest. Everyone wants a bottle tree to protect their garden. 

June 25, 2007

Roan Mountain Rhododendron Gardens

June 2007 Trip to Roan Mountain

My wife and I had an opportunity to visit the Roan Mountain Rhododendron Gardens on June 23rd, 2007. We barely missed the peak blooming which occurred on Tuesday, June 19th. The views were still spectacular! I wanted to share some of the history, statistics and nature images with you.

Roan Mountain is most famous for its acres of rhododendron gardens. Around the third week in June, the shrubs are covered with hundreds of large magenta blooms. The blooming peak last only a few days.

The mountain is a 5-mile-long ridge with the high point at Roan High Knob, 6,285 feet, and the low point at Carvers Gap, 5,500 feet.

The state line follows the Roan Mountain ridge, as does most of the Appalachian Trail. The US. Forest Service bought the 7,000 acres along the top and sides of Roan Mountain in 1941.


Roan Mountain’s high elevation results in cool, wet summers and harsh, cold winter. Roan Mountain is frequently in the clouds and sometimes above the clouds. The climate supports a forest of red spruce and fraser fir – a forest rare in the South. Many other plants and several animals survive Roan Mountain because of its cool, wet climate.

French Botanist, Andre Michaux, discovered the Catawba rhododendron (Rhododendron catawbiensis) on roan Mountain in 1789. Many cultivated rhododendrons originated from this natural species.

Rhododendrons are celebrated every June with annual rhododendron festivals held in Roan Mountain State Park, TN and Bakersville, NS.

Roan Mountain Pharmacy

If you ever get the chance to visit during this time, you will always remember the natural beauty displayed around the mountain. 

History of Roan Mountain

Standing 6,285 feet on the Tennessee-North Carolina border, Roan Mountain has been a popular destination for hundreds of years. 

People likely arrived in this area after the glaciers retreated around 10,000 years ago. Although the first people lived in the valleys, they hunted in the mountains. The Catawba Indian legend tells of a great battle with the Cherokee over the claim to Roan. After a fierce fight, Catawbas emerged victorious. To remember the battle, the Great Spirit caused the forest to wither from the battleground creating the balds, and so much blood was spilled that the rhododendron turned from white to red.


* The largest expanse of Southern Appalachian balds in the world stretch across the Roan highlands, return to Carvers Gap and head northward on the Appalachian Trail.

Spanish explorers came in search of gold, while world renowned botanists came looking for exotic plant species. Beginning with Andre Michaux in 1789, a steady stream of the world’s most noted botanists have enjoyed the rare plants of Roan Mountain.

In September 1898, John Muir arrived at the Cloudland Hotel feeling poorly. He wrote his wife, “The open broad ridge top for miles is covered with rhododendron about 5 ft. high which in flower must make a glorious show…The temp is distinctly alpine & for the first time since leaving home feel like my old self…this air has healed me…”

Cloudland Hotel

For more than 20 years, people of means traveled to Roan Mountain to enjoy the healthful mountain air and cool summers. The first hotel – a 21-room, spruce log retreat – was replaced in 1885 by a grand three-story hotel. The elegant Cloudland Hotel boasted carpets, fine furniture, copper bathtubs, and steam heat. Guests enjoyed bowling, croquet, and golf on the grounds. They relaxed in rockers on the wide porches and dined on three sumptuous meals each day. All this for $2 per day, $10 per week, or $30 per month.

In the early 1900s, Cloudland Hotel lost its luster and by 1910 it was abandoned and dismantled. Today nothing remains on the flat knoll once crowned by opulence.

The rich and the infirm came to the magnificent Cloudland Hotel in the late 1800s and early 1900s to take the invigorating air of the high mountains.

Even today some 200,000 visitors come to see the Rhododendron gardens in bloom in late June.

From Andre Michaux, the world famous botanist, to General John Wilder, a Union Army General who built hotels in the village and on the top of Roan Mountain; from the Roan’s inexplicable “balds” to the lush forests of its “Canadian zone,” Roan Mountain remains one of the most beloved places in the southern Appalachian highlands. EXCERPTS FROM “ROAN MOUNTAIN, A PASSAGE OF TIME” 

Here are a few of our June 23rd images. We can share more if there is an interest.

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